Hansani Piumanthi


Framework for Agile Project Management

Scrum is a framework aimed at managing change during intricate tasks. Its primary objective is to ensure the delivery of the utmost value in product development within an agile environment. It has originally conceptualized by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland in the 1990s, Scrum has garnered widespread adoption globally, with its user base continually expanding.

This methodology emphasizes early issue identification and progress evaluation, fostering a culture of continuous improvement to enhance value delivery.

Scrum operates through a structured framework consisting of 3 key accountabilities, 5 essential events (ceremonies), 3 fundamental artifacts, and associated commitments. These components collectively guide individuals and interactions, facilitating the maximization of value in complex work scenarios.

Scrum is simple: 

  1. A Product Owner orders the work for a complex problem into a Product Backlog. 
  2. The Scrum Team turns a selection of the work into an Increment of value during a Sprint. 
  3. The Scrum Team and its stakeholders inspect the results and adjust the plan & process for the next Sprint. Repeat.

Scrum Accountabilities 

The fundamental organizational unit of Scrum is the Scrum Team. They are accountable for creating a valuable, useful Increment every Sprint. Inside the Scrum Team there are 3 accountabilities:

Product Owner

Product owner is a person who is accountable for maximizing the value of the product resulting from the work of the Scrum Team. Although others may assist, they are accountable for effective product backlog management.

For Scrum to succeed and value to be delivered efficiently, the organization must recognize, respect and support the product owner.

The product owner is accountable for “what” is developed.

Scrum Master

Scrum Master is a person who is accountable for establishing Scrum and helping everyone understand and use it, both within the Scrum Team and the organization.

The Scrum Master is accountable for the Scrum Team’s effectiveness. They help create the conditions for effective delivery through facilitation, coaching, teaching, and mentoring. They provide delivery leadership whilst at the same time acting as a servant who helps remove impediments to the scrum team’s progress.

The scrum master is accountable for the “who” for now people use scrum and interact and collaborate to deliver value.


Developer is a person who is committed to create any aspect of a usable Increment each Sprint. They are accountable for the Sprint Backlog and for the technical quality of the product.

The Developers include anyone who works to create the product, whatever skillset they may have.

They are accountable for “how” the product is developed.

Scrum Ceremonies

The 5 Scrum ceremonies/ events are used to provide structured opportunities for Inspection & Adaptation. The events are:


The Sprint is a timebox of one month or less, during which a Done Increment is created that achieves a Sprint Goal. Sprint length should remain consistent over time.

The Sprint is a container event and includes the other Scrum events and all the work to create the Increment.

Sprint Planning: 

Sprint Planning occurs at the start of each Sprint and is timeboxed to 8 hours. The Scrum Team attends.

The result of Sprint Planning is a Sprint Backlog that details the work to be carried out in the Sprint including a plan of how it will be Done and a Sprint Goal that explains why the work is valuable.

Daily Scrum: 

The Daily Scrum is a 15-minute timeboxed event that is held every working day. It is for the Developers to plan their next 24 hours and inspect progress toward the Sprint Goal. The structure of the Daily Scrum is set by the Developers.

Sprint Review: 

The Sprint Review is held at the end of each Sprint and is timeboxed to 4 hours. The Scrum Team and stakeholders attend.

The purpose is to inspect the Increment, progress towards the Product Goal and to adapt the Product Backlog to include new insights.

Sprint Retrospective: 

The Sprint Retrospective is held at the end of each Sprint, after the Sprint Review and is timeboxed to 3 hours. The Scrum Team attend. The purpose is to identify and plan improvements to increase effectiveness.

Scrum Artifacts

Scrum’s artifacts represent work or value to provide transparency and opportunities for inspection and adaptation. The artifacts are:

Product Backlog

The Product Backlog is a transparent and ordered list of known and valuable work. It is the single source of work for the Scrum Team. By the time a Product Backlog items (PBI) reaches the top of the Product Backlog, it must have been refined to a ready state meaning enough is known, and it is small enough to be taken into a sprint.

The Product Owner is accountable for the Product Backlog although others may assist them to manage it. Changes in business requirements, market conditions, or technology may cause changes in the Product Backlog. 

Sprint Backlog

The Sprint Backlog is composed of the Sprint Goal (why), the set of Product Backlog items selected for the Sprint (what), as well as an actionable plan for delivering the Increment (how).

It represents a forecast by the Developers about what valuable work will be in the next Increment and it makes this work visible. It has enough detail that progress can be inspected at the Daily Scrum. The Developers may modify the Sprint Backlog throughout the Sprint as more is learned about the best way to complete the work.


An Increment is a body of inspectable, useable and Done work that supports empiricism. It is the sum of all the Product Backlog items Done during a Sprint and the Increments of all previous Sprints.

Scrum Commitments

Each of the artifacts in Scrum contains a commitment to them which bring transparency and focus to the artifacts:

The Product Backlog has the Product Goal  

The Product Goal describes a future state of the product which can serve as a target for the Scrum Team to plan against.

The Product Goal is the long-term objective for the Scrum Team. They must fulfil (or abandon) one objective before taking on the next. The increment is a step towards a Product Goal.

The Sprint Backlog has the Sprint Goal  

The Sprint Goal is the single objective for the Sprint. It explains why the work in the Sprint Backlog is valuable

A Sprint Goal is an output of the Sprint Planning event and forms part of the Sprint Backlog. Every Sprint must have a Sprint Goal. A good Sprint Goal provides focus, flexibility and purpose.

The Increment has the Definition of Done

The Definition of Done is a formal description of the state of the increment when it meets the quality measures required for the product. Work cannot be considered part of an increment unless it meets the definition of done.

The Definition of Done support effective inspection of the increment and product backlog as everyone is aware of the work that Done and what work is not Done.

In essence, Scrum offers a straightforward yet powerful framework for managing complex projects, promoting collaboration, adaptability, and value-driven development.